Welcome to the IUCN SSC PangolinSG’s literature library. Although pangolins remain little studied species, scientific literature on the species, their ecology, trade and conservation has increased over the years. We present a comprehensive collection of literature below, organized into the categories of CITES and enforcement, conservation action, demand, ecology, forensics, husbandry, phylogeny, trade and use, and veterinary health.

Use the drop-down menu below to explore our library. For publications that are freely available or open access, we have provided a link to view the publication.

 

Anon (1992) CITES RST. Review of Asian pangolins. Final Report, CITES Animals Committee, March 1992

Anon (1994) Proposal to transfer African pangolins to Appendix II. Cop9

Anon (1999) CITES RST. Review of Manis javanica

Anon (1999) CITES RST. Review of Manis pentadactyla

Anon (1999) Manis gigantea. CITES Animal Committee 15th Meeting.

Anon (2000) Prop 11.13. Asian pangolins. Consideration of proposals for amendment of Appendices I and II

Anon (2001) CITES RST. AC17 Doc. 7.1. Progress on the implementation of phase IV of the review of significant trade.

Anon. CITES COP 9 Doc. 9.45. Consideration of proposals for amendment of Appendices I and II. Ten year review proposals.

CITES Secretariat (2012).CITES Trade: recent trends in international trade in Appendix II‐listed species (1996‐2010).   Prepared by UNEP‐WCMC, Cambridge.

Broad, S., Luxmoore, R. and Jenkins., M (1988) Significant trade in wildlife. A review of selected species in CITES Appendix II. Volume 1: Mammals. IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, UK.

Challender, D.W.S., Harrop, S.R. and MacMillan, D.C. (2015) Understanding markets to conserve trade-threatened species in CITES. Biological Conservation 187:429-259

Challender, D.W.S. and Waterman, C. (2017) Implementation of CITES Decisions 17.239b) and 17.240 on Pangolins (Manis spp.). Prepared by IUCN for the CITES Secretariat

Shepherd, C.R., Connelly, E., Hywood, L. and Cassey, P. (2016) Taking a stand against illegal wildlife trade: the Zimbabwean approach to pangolin conservation. Oryx 51(2):280-285

TRAFFIC and the IUCN/SSC Wildlife Trade Programme (2004) Taxa identified as possible candidates for inclusion in the review of significant trade in specimens of Appendix-II species. Twentieth Meeting of the CITES Animal Committee. Johannesburg (South Africa), 29 March-2 April 2004.

Luxmoore, R.A. and Inkskipp, T.P. The Japanese role in wildlife trade. A review of the imports to Japan of Appendix II species previously identified as being traded at significant levels. World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK.

Anon (1978) There are only 10 pangolin left in South Africa. African Wildlife 32(4):22-23

Anon (2008) Pangolin conservation stakeholders workshop. Participant handout. Hosted by the Forestry Administration of Cambodia and Conservation International-Cambodia, with support from the Pangolin Conservation Support Initiative. Thma Bang Field Station, Central Cardamoms Protected Forest, Koh Kong Province, November 4th and 5th 2008.

Challender, D. W. S., Baillie, J. E. M., Waterman, C. and the IUCN SSC Pangolin Specialist Group (2012) Catalysing conservation action and raising the profile of pangolins – the IUCN SSC Pangolin Specialist Group (PangolinSG).  Asian Journal of Conservation Biology 1(2): 140-141.

Chao, J-T., Tsao, E.H., Traylor-Holzer, K., Reed, D. and Leus, K. (eds.). 2005. Formosan Pangolin Population and Habitat Viability Assessment: Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN.

DNPWC and DoF. 2018. Pangolin Conservation Action Plan for Nepal (2018-2022). Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation and Department of Forests, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Fletcher, L. (2016) Developing a strategy for pangolin conservation in Brunei: Refining guidelines for the release of confiscated animals and gathering baseline data. 1stop Brunei Wildlife Club.

Zhou, Z-M., Zhou, Y. and Newman, C. (2014) Scaling up pangolin protection in China. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12(2):97-98.

 

Aisher, A. (2016) Scarcity, alterity and value: decline of the pangolin, the world’s most trafficked mammal.  Conservation and Society 14(4):317-329

Anon. (2010). Understanding the motivations: the first step toward influencing China's unsustainable wildlife consumption. TRAFFIC East Asia.

Chaber, A-L., Allebone-Webb, S., Lignereux, Y., Cunningham, A.A. and Rowcliffe, J.M. (2010) The scale of illegal meat importation from Africa to Europe via Paris. Conservation Letters 3(5):317-323

Challender, D.W.S., Wu, S.B., Nijman, V. and MacMillan, D.C. (2014) Changing behavior to tackle the wildlife trade.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12(4):203

Shairp, R., Veríssimo, D., Fraser, I., Challender, D. and MacMillan, D. (2016) Understanding urban demand for wild meat in Vietnam: implications for conservation actions. PLOS ONE 11(1):e0134787

Vallianos, C. Pangolins on the Brink.  Wild Aid San Francisco, CA.

Venkataraman, B. (Comps) (2007) A matter of attitude: the consumption of wild animal products in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.  TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Greater Mekong Programme, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

Veríssimo, D., Challender, D.W.S. and Nijman, V. (2012) Wildlife trade in Asia: start with the consumer.  Asian Journal of Conservation Biology 1(2):49-50

Whiting, M.J., Williams, V.L. and Hibbitts, T.J. (2010) Animals traded for traditional medicine at the Faraday market in South Africa: species diversity and conservation implications.  Journal of Zoology 284:84-96

Zhang, L. and Yin, F. (2013) Wildlife consumption and conservation awareness in China: a long way to go. Biodiversity Conservation 23:2371-2381

 

Akpona, H.A., Djagoun, C.A.M.S. and Sinsin, B. (2008) Ecology and ethnozoology of the three-cusped pangolin Manis tricuspis (Mammalia, Pholidota) in the Lama forest reserve, Benin. Mammalia 72:198-202

Akrin, F., Mahmood, T., Hussain, R., Qasim, S. and Zangi, I. (2017)Distribution pattern, population estimation and threats to the Indian pangolin Manis crassicaudata (Mammalia: Pholidota: Manidae) in and around Pir Lasura National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.  Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(3):9920-9927

Allen, G.M. and Loveridge, A. (1942)  Scientific results of a fourth expedition to forested areas in east and central Africa. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 91:237-373

Allen, G.M. The Mammals of China and Mongolia.  New York, American Museum of Natural History, 1938-1940

Anon (2003) Pangolins (Mammalia: Pholidota) of India. ENVIS Newsletter, Vol. 9 No. 1&2, Zoological Survey of India.

Anon (2016) Current Status of the Indian pangolin in Chiplun taluka of Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra, India. Unpublished report.

Beck, A. (2008) Electric fence induced mortality in South Africa.   MSc Dissertation. School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences. University of Witwatersrand

Challender, D. (2009) Asian Pangolins: how behavioural research can contribute to their conservation.  Proceedings of the Workshop on Trade and Conservation of Pangolins Native to South and Southeast Asia. p95-102

Chong, J.L., Muhammad, H.S. and Marina, H. (2016) Conservation of the Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) in peninsular Malaysia: important findings and conclusions. Malayan Nature Journal 68(4):161-171

Corlett, R.T. (2007) The impact of hunting on the mammalian fauna of tropical Asian forests. Biotropica 39(3):292-303

Esselstyn, J.A., Widmann, P. and Heaney, L.R. (2004) The mammals of Palawan Island, Philippines.  Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 117(3):271–302

Fan, C-Y. (2005) Burrow habitat of Formosan pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) at Feitsui Reservoir. MSc Thesis. School of Forestry and Resource Conservation National Taiwan University.

Hatt, R.T. (1934) The pangolins and aard-varks collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History

Heaney, L.R. (1998) A synopsis of the mammalian fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana. Zoology, New Series no. 88

Heath, M.E. and Coulsin, I. (1998) Measurements of length and mass in a wild population of Cape pangolins (Manis temminckii) in north-west Zimbabwe. African Journal Ecology 36:267-270

Heath, M.E. (1992) Manis pentadactyla. Mammalian Species 414:1-6

Heath, M.E. (1995) Manis crassicaudata. Mammalian Species 513:1-4

Heath, M.E. and Coulson, I.M. (1997) Home range size and distribution in a wild population of Cape pangolins, Manis temminckii, in north-west Zimbabwe.  African Journal of Ecology 35:94-109.

Hedges, L. and Aziz, S.A. (2013) A novel interaction between a sun bear and pangolin in the wild.  In International Bear News Quarterly Newsletter of the International Association for Bear Research and Management (IBA) and the IUCN/SSC Bear Specialist Group. Spring 2013 22(1):31-32

Herklots, G.A.C. (1937) The pangolin or scaly ant-eater.  The Hong Kong Naturalist 8(2):78 -83

Irshad, N., Mahmood, T., Hussain, R. and Nadeem, M.S. (2015) Distribution, abundance and diet of the Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata). Animal biology 65:57-71

Jnawali, S.R., Baral, H.S., Lee, S., Acharya, K.P., Upadhyay, G.P., Pandey, M., Shrestha, R., Joshi, D., Laminchhane, B.R., Griffiths, J., Khatiwada, A. P., Subedi, N., and Amin, R. (compilers) (2011) The Status of Nepal Mammals: The National Red List Series. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Kathmandu, Nepal.

Katuwal, H.B., Neupane, K.R., Adhikari, D., Sharma, M. and Thapa, S. (2015) Pangolins in Eastern Nepal: trade and ethno-medicinal importance.  Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(9):7563-7567

Kitamura, S., Thong-Aree, S., Madsri, S. and Poonswad, P. (2010) Mammal diversity and conservation in a small isolated forest of southern Thailand.  The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 58(1):145-156

Lagrada, L.S. (2012) Population density, distribution and habitat preferences of the Palawan pangolin, Manis culionensis (de ELERA, 1915). MSc Thesis. Faculty of the Graduate School University of the Philippines, Los Baños, Philippines

Li, H-F., Lin, J-S., Lan, Y-C., Pei, K. J-C. and Su, N-Y. (2011) Survey of the termites (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae) in a Formosan pangolin habitat.  Florida Entomologist 94(3):534-538

Lim, N.T.L. (2008) Autecology of the Sunda pangolin  (Manis javanica) in Singapore.  MSc Thesis. Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Lim, N.T.L. and Ng, P.K.L. (2007) Home range, activity cycle and natal den usage of a female Sunda pangolin Manis javanica (Mammalia: Pholidota) in Singapore.  Endangered Species Research. 4:233-240

Lim, N.T.K., and Ng, P.K.L. (2008) Predation on Manis javanica by Python reticulatus in Singapore. Hamadryad 32(1): 62-65

Mahmood, T., Irshad, N. and Hussain, R. (2014) Habitat preference and population estimates of Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in district Chakwal of Potohar Plateau, Pakistan. Russian Journal of Ecology 45(1):70-75

Mahmood, T., Jabeen, K., Hussain, R. and Kayani, A.R. (2013) Plant species association, burrow characteristics and the diet of the Indian pangolin, Manis crassicaudata, in the Potohar Plateau, Pakistan.  Pakistan Journal of Zoology 45(6):1533-1539

Mahmood, T., Irshad, N., Hussain, R., Akrim, F., Hussain, I., Anwar, M., Rais, M., and Naddem, M.S. (2015) Breeding habits of the Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in Potohar Plateau, Pakistan. Mammalia 80(2):231–234

Mahmood, T., Andleeb, S., Anwar, M., Rais, M., Nadeem, M.S., Akrim, F. and Hussain, R.  (2015) Distribution, abundance and vegetation analysis of the scaly anteater (Manis crassicaudata) in Margalla Hills National Park Islamabad, Pakistan.  The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 25(5):1311-1321

Marler, P.N. (2016) Camera trapping the Palawan pangolin Manis culionensis (Mammalia: Pholidota: Manidae) in the wild.   Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(12):9443-9448

Mishra, S. and Panda, S. (2012) Distribution of Indian pangolin Manis crassicaudata Gray (Pholidota, Manidae) in Orissa: a rescue prospective.  Small Mammal Mail - Bi-Annual Newsletter of CCINSA & RISCINSA   1(3):51-53

Misra, M. (2000) Pangolin distribution and trade in East and Northeast India. TRAFFIC Dispatches 14:4-5

Mugume, S., Isabirye-Basuta, G., Otali, E., Reyna-Hurtado, R., and Chapman, C.A. (2015) How do human activities influence the status and distribution of terrestrial mammals in forest reserves? Journal of Mammalogy 96(5):998-1004

Nabhitabhata, J. and Chan-ard, T. 2005. Thailand Red Data : Mammals, Reptiles and Amphibians.  Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, Bangkok, Thailand. 234 p

Nowak, R.M. and Paradiso, J.L. (1992) Walker’s Mammals of the World. John’s Hopkins University Press: 1239-1242

Pagés, E. (1975) Étude éco-éthologique de Manis tricuspis par radio-tracking.  Mammalia 39(4): 613-642

Panjang, E.B. (2012) The ecology of Sunda pangolin Manis javanica in Sabah. BSc Dissertation. School of Science and Technology. University Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia.

Pantel, S. and Chin, S.Y. (ed.) (2008) Proceedings of the workshop on trade and conservation of pangolins native to south and southeastern Asia.  30 June – 2 July 2008, Singapore Zoo,  Singapore. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia

Pei, K.J-P., Lai, Y-C., Corlett, R.T., and Suen, K-Y. (2010) The larger mammal fauna of Hong Kong: species survival in a highly degraded landscape.   Zoological Studies  49(2): 253-264

Perera, P.K.P., Karawita, K.V.D.H.R. and Pabasara, M.G.T. (2017)  Pangolins (Manis crassicaudata) in Sri Lanka: a review of current knowledge, threats and research priorities.  Journal of Tropical Forestry and Environment 7(1):1-14

Pietersen, D.W., McKechnie, A.E. and Jansen, R. (2014) Home range, habitat selection and activity patterns of an arid-zone population of Temminck’s ground pangolins, Smutsia temminckii.  African Zoology 49(2):265-276

Pietersen, D.W. (2016) Comments on the longevity of ground pangolins (Smutsia spp.) in general, and Temminck’s Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii) in particular. Unpublished report.

Rao, M., Htun, S., Zaw, T. and Myint, T. (2010) Hunting, livelihoods and declining wildlife in the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar. Environmental Management 46:143-153

Richer, R.A., Coulson, I.M. and Heath, M.E. (1997) Foraging behaviour and ecology of the Cape pangolin (Manis temminckii) in north-western Zimbabwe. African Journal Ecology 35:361-369

Ripple W.J. et al. (2016) Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world’s mammals.  Royal Society Open Science 3:160498

Shek, C-T., Chan, C.S.M. and Wan, Y-F. (2007) Camera trap survey of Hong Kong terrestrial mammals in 2002-06.  Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Newsletter  15:1-16

Sodeinde, O.A. and Adedipe, S.R. (1994) Pangolins in south-west Nigeria - current status and prognosis.  Oryx 28(1):43-50

Swart, J.M., Richardson, P.R.K. and Ferguson, J.W.H. (1999) Ecological factors affecting the feeding behaviour of pangolins (Manis temminckii). Journal of Zoology 247(3):281-292

Wu, S. B. and Ma, G. (2007).The status and conservation of pangolins in China.  TRAFFIC East Asia Newsletter (4):1-5

Trageser, S.J., Ghose, A., Faisal, M., Mro, P., Mro, P. and Rahman, S.C. (2017) Pangolin distribution and conservation status in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE 12(4): e0175450

Tsai, Y-L.., Yuan, H-W., Chen, P-C. and Yang, C-W. (2004) Preliminary study on the habitat of the Taiwan pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) at Muchia area.  Jour. Exp. For. Nat. Taiwan Univ. 18(1): 29-34

Willcox, D., Bull, D., Nguyen, V.N., Tran, Q.P. and Nguyen, V.T. (2017) Small carnivore records from the U Minh Wetlands, Vietnam.  Small Carnivore Conservation 55: 4–25

Wu, S-B., Ma, G-Z., Tang, M., Chen, H. and Liu, N.F. (2002) The status and conservation strategy of pangolin resource in China. Journal of Nature Resources 17(2): 174-180

Wu, S-B., Liu, N., Zhang, Y. and Guangzhi, M.A. (2004) Assessment of threatened status of Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla). Chinese Journal Applied and Environmental Biology 10(4):456-461

Wu, S-B., Liu, N.-F., Ma, G-Z., Xu, Z-R. and Chen, H. (2003) Studies on habitat selection by Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) in winter in Dawuling Natural Reserve. Acta Ecologica Sinica 23(6):1079-1086

Wu, S-B., Guangzhi, M.A., Tang, M., Chen, H., Xu, T. and Liu, N. (2002) The population and density of pangolin in Dawuling Natural Reserve and the number of pangolin resource in Guangdong Province.  Acta Theriologica Sinica 22(4):270-276

Wu, S-B., Liu, N., Zhang, Y. and Guangzhi, M.A. (2004) Physical measurement and comparison for two species of pangolin. Acta Theriologica Sinica 24(4):361-364

Wu, S-B., Wang, Y-X. and Feng, Q. (2005) A new record of Mammalia in China – Manis Javanica. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 30(2):440-443

Zhang, S., Zheng, F., Li, J., Bao, Q., Lai, J. and Cheng, H. (2017) Monitoring diversity of ground-dwelling birds and mammals in Wuyanling National Nature Reserve using infrared camera traps. Biodiversity Science 25(4):427-429

Zhang, F., Wu, S-B., Yang, L., Zhang, L., Sun, R. and Li, S. (2015) Reproductive parameters of the Sunda pangolin Manis javanica.  Folia Zoologica 64(2):129-135

Zhou, Z-M., Zhao, H., Zhang, Z-X., Wang, Z-H. and Wang, H. (2012) Allometry of scales in Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) and Malayan pangolins (Manis javanica) and application in judicial expertise.  Zoological Research 33(3):271-275

 

Du Toit, Z., Grobler, J.P., Kotze, A., Jansen, R. and Dalton, D.L. (2017) Scale samples from Temminck’s ground pangolin (Smutsia temminckii): a non-invasive source of DNA. Conservation Genetics Resources 9(1):1-4

Kumar, V.P., Rajpoot, A., Mukesh, Shukla, M., Kumar, D., and Goyal, S.P. (2016) Illegal trade of Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata): genetic study from scales based on mitochondrial genes.  Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences 6:524-533

Luczon, A.U., Ong, P.S., Quilang, J.P., and Fontanilla, I.K.C. (2016) Determining species identity from confiscated pangolin remains using DNA barcoding.  Mitochondrial DNA Part B 1(1):763-766

Zhang, H., Miller, M.P., Yang, F., Chan H.K., Gaubert, P., Ades, G., and Fischer, G.A. (2015) Molecular tracing of confiscated pangolin scales for conservation and illegal trade monitoring in Southeast Asia.  Global Ecology and Conservation 4:414-422

 

Acharjyo, L.N. (2000) Management of Indian Pangolin in captivity. 125 Years of Calcutta Zoo (1875-2000). The Managing Committee, Zoological Garden, Alipore, Calcutta. 27-30

Cabana, F., Plowman, A., Van Nguyen, T., Chin, S.-C., Wu, S.-L., Lo, H.-Y., Watabe, H., and Yamamoto, F.(2017) Feeding Asian pangolins: An assessment of current diets fed in institutions worldwide.  Zoo Biology 36(4):298-305

Challender, D.W.S., Van Nguyen, T., Jones, M. and May, L. (2012) Time-budgets and activity patterns of captive Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica).  Zoo Biology 31(2):208-218

Chen, S.-M., His, C.-C., Chen, Y.-M., and Chang, M.-H. (2005) Activity pattern of Formosan pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) in captivity. Taipei Zoo, Taipei, R.O.C.

Chin, S.-C., Lien, C.-Y., Chan, Y.-T., Chen, C.-L., Yang, Y-C., and Yeh, L-S. (2012) Monitoring the gestation period of rescued formosan pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) with progesterone radioimmunoassay.  Zoo Biology 31(4):479-489

Heath, M.E. and Vanderlip, S.L. (1988) Biology, husbandry, and veterinary care of captive Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla). Zoo Biology 7(4):293-312

Hoyt, R. A. (1987) Pangolins: past, present and future. AAZPA National Conference Proceedings 1987: 107-134.

Hua, L., Gong, S., Wang, F., Li, W., Ge, Y., Li, X. and Hou, F. (2015) Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects. Zoo Keys 507:99-114

Lee, R.H., Cheung, K., Fellowes, J.R. and Guénard, B. (2017) Insights into the Chinese pangolin’s (Manis pentadactyla) diet in a peri-urban habitat: a case study from Hong Kong.  Tropical Conservation Science 10:1-7

Mohapatra, R. K., Panda, S. and Nair, M.V. (2014) Architecture and microclimate of burrow systems of Indian pangolins in captivity. In L. N. Acharjyo and S. Panda (Eds.). Indian Zoo Year Book. vol. VIII. (pp12-24) Indian Zoo Directors’ Association and Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi.

Mohapatra, R., Panda S. and M. Nair (2015) On the mating behaviour of captive Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata).  Taprobanica 7(1): 57–59.

Mohapatra, R.K. and Panda, S. (2013) Behavioural sampling techniques and activity pattern of Indian pangolin Manis crassicaudata (Mammalia: Manidae) in captivity.  Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(17):5247-5255

Mohapatra, R.K. and Panda, S. (2014) Behavioural descriptions of Indian pangolins (Manis crassicaudata) in captivity.  International Journal of Zoology 2014:1-7

Mohapatra, R.K. and Panda, S. (2014) Husbandry, behavior and conservation breeding of Indian pangolin.  Folia Zoologica 63(2):73-80

Pattnaik A.K. (2008) Enclosure design and enrichment - key to the successful conservation breeding of Indian pangolin (Mani crassicaudata) in captivity. In L. N. Acharjyo and A.K. Pattnaik (Eds.). Indian Zoo Year Book. vol. V. (pp91-102) Indian Zoo Directors’ Association and Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi.

Nguyen Van Thai, Clark, L.  and Tran Quang Phuong (2010) Management Guidelines for Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica).   Carnivore and Pangolin Conservation Program – Save Vietnam’s Wildlife, Vietnam

Yang, C.W., Chen, S., Chang, C-Y., Lin, M.F., Block, E., Lorentsen, R., Chin, J.S.C. and Dierenfeld, E.S. (2007) History and dietary husbandry of pangolins in captivity.  Zoo Biology 26:223-230

Yang, C.W., Chou, C.S. and Chao, M.C. (2000) The feeding of the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pendadactyla) at Taipei Zoo. Taipei Zoo, 30 Sec. 2, Hsin Kuang Road, Taipei, Taiwan.

Zhang, F., Wu, S., Yang, L., Zhang, L., Sun, R. and Li, S. (2015) Reproductive parameters of the Sunda pangolin, Manis javanica.  Folia Zoologica 64(2):129-135

Zhang, F., Yu, J., Wu, S., Li, S., Zou, C., Wang, Q. and Sun, R. (2017) Keeping and breeding the rescued Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) in captivity.  Zoo Biology 36(6):387-396

Zhang, F., Wu, S., Zou, C., Wang, Q., Li, S. and Sun, R. (2016) A note on captive breeding and reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin, Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758.  Zoo Keys 618: 129-144

 

Arnason, U., Adegoke, J.A., Bodin, K., Born, E.W., Esa, Y.B., Gullberg, A., Nilsson, M., Short, R.V., Xu, X., and Janke, A. (2002) Mammalian mitogenomic relationships and the root of the eutherian tree. PNAS 9(12):8151-8156

Chan, L-K. (1995) Extrinsic lingual musculature of two pangolins (Pholidota: Manidae). Journal of Mammology 76(2):472-480

Choo, S.W. et al. (2016) Pangolin genomes and the evolution of mammalian scales and immunity.  Genome Research 26:1312-1322

Du Toit, Z., Du Plessis, M., Dalton, D.L., Jansen, R., Grobler, J. P. and Kotzé, A. (2017) Mitochondrial genomes of African pangolins and insights into evolutionary patterns and phylogeny of the family Manidae. BMC Genomics 18:746

Earl of Cranbrook (2009) Late quaternary turnover of mammals in Borneo: the zooarchaeological record. Biodiversity Conservation 19(2): 373-391

Gaubert, P. et al. (2016) The complete phylogeny of pangolins: scaling up resources for the molecular tracing of the most trafficked mammals on Earth. Journal of Heredity 109(4):347-359

Gaubert, P. and Antunes, A. (2005) Assessing the taxonomic status of the Palawan pangolin Manis culionensis (Pholidota) using discrete morphological characters. Journal of Mammalogy 86(6):1068-1074

Gaudin, T.J., Emry, R.J. and Wible, J.R. (2009) The phylogeny of living and extinct pangolins (Mammalia, Pholidota) and associated taxa: a morphology based analysis. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 16:235-305

Gaudin, T.J., Emry, R.J. and Pogue, B. (2006) A new genus and species of pangolin (Mammalia, Pholidota) from the Late Eocene of Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26(1):146-159

Gaudin, T.J. and Wible, J.R. (1999) The entotympanic of pangolins and the phylogeny of Pholidota (Mammalia). Journal of Mammalian Evolution 6(1):39-65

Hari, R., Paterson, I.C. and Choo, S.W. (2016) A new complete mitogenome of the critically endangered Chinese pangolin Manis pentadactyla. Conservation Genetics Resources 8(4):423-426

Hassanin, A., Hugot, J-P. and Van Vuuren, B.J. (2015) Comparison of mitochondrial genome sequences of pangolins (Mammalia, Pholidota). Comptes Rendus Biologies 338(4):260-265

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