Welcome to the IUCN SSC PangolinSG’s literature library. Although pangolins remain little studied species, scientific literature on the species, their ecology, trade and conservation has increased over the years. We present a comprehensive collection of open-access literature below, organized into the categories of region, trade, husbandry, veterinary health and other.



Challender D. W. S., Baillie J. E. M., Waterman C. and the IUCN SSC Pangolin Specialist Group (2012) Catalysing conservation action and raising the profile of pangolins – the IUCN SSC Pangolin Specialist Group (PangolinSG). Asian Journal of Conservation Biology 1(2): 140-141.

Challender D. W. S., Baillie J. E. M., Waterman C., Pietersen D., Nash H., Wicker L., Parker K., Thomson P., Nguyen T. V., Hywood L., and Shepherd C. R.. (2016) On scaling up pangolin conservation. TRAFFIC Bulletin. 28(1) 19-21.

Esselstyn, J. A., Widmann, P. and Heaney, L. R. (2004) The mammals of Palawan Islands, PhilippinesProceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 117(3): 271-302.

Gaubert, P. and Antunes, A. (2005) Assessing the taxonomic status of the Palawan pangolin Manis culionensis (Pholidota) using discrete morphological characters. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (60): 1068-1074.

Heath, M. (1995) Manis crassicaudata. Mammalian Species 513: 1-4.

Heath, M. (1992) Manis pentadactyla. Mammalian Species 414: 1-6.

Lim, N. T. L. and Ng, P. K. L. (2007) Home range, activity cycle and natal den usage of a female Sunda pangolin Manis javanica (Mammalia: Pholidota) in Singapore. Endangered Species Research 3: 1-8.

Mohapatra, R. K., Panda, S., Nair, M. V., Acharjyo, L. N. and Challender, D. W. S. (2015) A note on the illegal trade and use of pangolin body parts in India. TRAFFIC Bulletin 27(1): 33-40.

Newton, P., Nguyen Van T., Roberton, S. and Bell, D. (2008) Pangolins in peril: using hunters’ knowledge to conserve elusive species in Vietnam. Endangered Species Research 6: 41-53.

Nijman V. (2015) Pangolin seizures data reported in the Indonesian media. TRAFFIC Bulletin 27(2): 44-46.

Wu, S. B., Ma, G. Z., Tang, M., Chen, H. and Liu, N. F. (2002) The status and conservation strategy of pangolin resource in China. Journal of Natural Resources 17: 174-180.

Wu, S.B., Guangxi, M.A., Mei, T., Chen, H., Xu, Z. and Liu, N. (2002) The population and density of pangolin in Dawuling Natural Reserve and the number of pangolin resource in Guangdong Province. Acta Theriologica Sinica 22(4) (In Chinese, English abstract).

Wu, S., Liu, N., Zhang, Y. and Ma, G. (2004) Assessment of threatened status of Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla). Chinese Journal of Applied Environmental Biology 10(4): 456–461.

Wu, S. B. and Ma, G. Z. (2007) The status and conservation of pangolins in China. TRAFFIC East Asia Newsletter 4: 1–5 (In Chinese).

Wu, S. B. and Ma, G. Z. (2007). The status and conservation of pangolins in China. TRAFFIC East Asia Newsletter 4: 1–5 (Unofficial English translation).



Boakye, M. K., Pietersen, D. W., Kotzé, A., Dalton, D.-L. and Jansen, R. (2015) Knowledge and uses of
African pangolins as a source of traditional medicine in Ghana. PLoS ONE 10(1): e0117199.

Douglas, M. (1957) Animals in Lele religious symbolism. Journal of the International African Institute 27(1): 46-58.

De Heusch, L., Douglas, M. and Lewis, I. M. (1993) Hunting the pangolin. Man 28(1): 159-166.

Soewu, D. A. and Adekanola, T. A. (2011) Traditional-medical knowledge and perception of pangolins (Manis sps) among the Awori people, southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 7:25.

Soewu, D. A., Ayodele, I. A. (2009). Utilisation of pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 5: 39.

Swart, J. M., Richardson, P. R. K. and Ferguson, J. W. H. (1999) Ecological factors affecting the behaviour of pangolins (Manis temminckii). Journal of Zoology 247: 281-292.

Walsh, M. T. (1996) The ritual sacrifice of pangolins among the Sangu of South-west Tanzania. Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research 37/38: 155-170.

Wright, A. C. A. (1954) The magical importance of pangolins among the Basukuma. Tanganyika Notes and Records 36: 71-72.



Bräutigam, A., Howes, J., Humphreys, T. and Hutton, J. (1994) Recent information on the status and utilisation of African pangolins. TRAFFIC Bulletin 15(1): 15-22.

Challender, D. W. S. (2011) Asian pangolins: Increasing affluence driving hunting pressure. TRAFFIC Bulletin 23(3): 92-93.

Challender, D. W. S., Harrop, S. R. and MacMillan, D. C. (2015) Understanding markets to conserve trade-threatened species in CITESBiological Conservation 187: 249-259.

Challender, D. W. S. and Hywood, L. (2012) African pangolins under increased pressure from hunting and intercontinental tradeTRAFFIC Bulletin 24(2): 53-55.

Pantel, S. and Anak, N. A. (2010) A preliminary assessment of Sunda pangolin trade in Sabah. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia.

Pantel, S. and Chin, S. Y. (eds) (2009) Proceedings of the Workshop on Trade and Conservation of Pangolins Native to South and Southeast Asia. 30 June to 2 July 2008, Singapore Zoo, Singapore. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia.


Husbandry, Veterinary Health and Other

Challender, D. W. S., Nguyen Van, T., Jones, M. and May, L. (2011) Time-budgets and activity patterns of captive Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica). Zoo Biology 29: 1-13.

Chin, S. C., Lien, C. Y., Chan, Y. T., Chen, C. L., Yang, Y. C. and Yeh, L. S. (2011). Monitoring the gestation period of rescued Formosan pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) with progesterone radioimmunoassay. Zoo Biology 30: 1-11.

Hoyt, R. A. (1987) Pangolins: past, present and future. AAZPA National Conference Proceedings 1987: 107-134.

Mohapatra, R., Panda, S. and Nair, M. On the mating behaviour of captive Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata)Taprobanica 7(1): 57–59.

Pocock, R. I. (1924) The external characters of the pangolins (Manidae). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1924: 707-723.

Wu, S., Naifa, L., Zhang, Y. and Ma, G. (2004) Physical measurement and comparison for two species of pangolin. Acta Theriologica Sinica 24(4).

Yang, C. W., Chen, S., Chang, C.-Y., Lin, M., Block, E., Lorentsen, R., Chin, J. S. C. and Dierenfeld, E. S. (2007) History and dietary husbandry of pangolins in captivityZoo Biology 26: 223-230.